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Technical papers

This is a collection of technical papers published by MAN Energy Solutions, Copenhagen/Holeby, Denmark, covering both MAN B&W two-stroke and MAN four-stroke internal combustion engines.

Our technical papers provide information on new engine developments and trends, service experience, important aspects of engine management and maintenance, and emissions requirements compliance and development, etc. 

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  • MAN B&W ME-LGIP dual-fuel engines
    pdf, 2012 KB
    The dual fuel capability of our two-stroke engines has been extended to include LPG as dual-fuel. The ME-LGIP engine was successfully tested on the research engine in Copenhagen in June 2018, and it has already been ordered for propulsion of LPGCs. The paper describes the technology of the engine, comprising injection, low-flashpoint fuel supply system, and gas valve train. The feasibility of the ME-LGIP engine for other ship types and as a retrofit on existing LPGCs is also touched on.
  • Basic principles of ship propulsion
    pdf, 6797 KB
    This paper provides the reader with an understanding of how the hull and propeller affect the engine running conditions and vice versa. The paper offers insight into how to design the most efficient propulsion plant, and explains how this task can be supported by applying the new engine selection spiral. This revised edition also includes a new section on the environmental regulations implemented over the past years. The effects of these regulations are reflected in three examples on the application of the engine selection spiral.
  • 0.50% S fuel operation - 2020
    pdf, 15941 KB
    This paper provides information and guidance on 0.50% S fuel operation and how to prepare for the change from operation on high-sulphur fuel to 0.50% S fuel. Attention is drawn to specific fuel properties that should be in focus and how 0.50% S fuels affect the equipment on board. Expectations for the new types of fuels are given, and information on biofuels, fuel testing, and fuels that are not fit for purpose is also included.
  • Adverse Weather Condition functionality and minimum propulsion power
    pdf, 4031 KB
    The tightening requirements of the Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) mean that the demand for energy efficiency of merchant vessels is continuously increasing. With the EEDI leading to reductions of the power on board, concerns about a possible lack of propulsion power during encounters of adverse weather have been expressed. This paper gives a detailed description of the challenge of propulsion in harsh weather, and introduces the Adverse Weather Conditions (AWC) functionality. The AWC functionality extends the load diagram of the engine as long as required in an emergency. This increases the heavy running capability of the engine significantly and increases the minimum forward speed of the vessel in harsh weather, without requiring an increase of the engine power installed.
  • 11,000 teu container vessel
    pdf, 944 KB
    The 11,000 teu container vessel has been a popular vessel type plying the Asia-Europe trade routes. This size of vessel has been an excellent choice that increases the flexibility in fleet deployment, with subsequent economic benefits. This paper considers an ME-GI Mk. 2 gas-fuelled container vessel and the potential different fuel gas supply system arrangements available. A method to calculate the gas tank size is proposed and different fuel gas system arrangements are compared. In conclusion, proposals are made on how to further increase the endurance and reduce the fuel consumption by applying the latest propulsion technologies, such as a combination of ME-GI and PTO, thus achieving the greatest possible energy efficiency.
  • Synchrophasing
    pdf, 3823 KB
    For the increasingly popular twin propulsion design, MAN Energy Solutions has introduced synchrophasing, which is a new and highly effective tool introduced to reduce vibrations of both vessel and engine structure. A comprehensive test period covering over 15 vessels shows a vibration reduction in the range of 50-70%.
  • Service experience
    pdf, 4680 KB
    This paper describes in detail the service experience of ME-GI, ME-GIE and ME LGIM engines. Furthermore, the latest experience from our large bore engines is described. Technologies to meet Tier III requirements and our new TCEV/ FBIV designs are also touched upon.
  • Propulsion trends in container vessels
    pdf, 1268 KB
    Container vessels carry vast amounts of consumables and components around the globe in liner traffic operated by some of the most renowned ship owners. Container vessels are a well-known representative for the maritime industry, and the interest in these is as vast as the competition within the segment is fierce.
  • Propulsion trends in bulk carriers
    pdf, 3901 KB
    Bulk carriers constitutes the single largest part of the world’s merchant fleet when counted in deadweight tonnage. As such, the propulsion of bulk carriers deserves special attention in an indus¬try increasingly focused on reducing emissions of greenhouse gasses. EEDI phase 2 and 3 requirements are approaching fast and requires innovative solutions to be implemented for the propulsion of this vital workhorse of the global economy. In this paper the possibilities for future EEDI compliance will be outlined and evaluated, ensuring benefits for the environment and for the owner.
  • Propulsion of 46,000-50,000 dwt MR tankers
    pdf, 2215 KB
    This paper provides guidance and examples on how to ensure compliance with EEDI phase 2 and 3 for MR tankers through three case studies. Application of the latest engine technology, such as EcoEGR in combination with a shaft generator, will reduce the EEDI significantly. Combined with an optimized aft ship with a Kappel propeller and a rudder bulb, this will ensure EEDI compliance for traditional fuels. In addition, the paper considers alternative fuels such as LPG and LNG, as such fuels reduce the EEDI significantly and allow for a higher service speed if desired.
  • Propulsion of 14,000 teu container vessel
    pdf, 1056 KB
    In anticipation of the completion of the new Panama Canal, the “New Panamax” type of container vessels has been a popular category since the early 2010s. New Panamax vessels offer easy access to the large market of North America as well as good flexibility, as the vessels offer adequate economy of scale to trade on many other routes. This paper considers the propulsion plants available for such vessels, and shows the significant savings that can be attained through the application of the latest propulsion technology, including EcoEGR.
  • Propulsion of 2,200-3,000 teu container vessels
    pdf, 986 KB
    The current container feeder fleet is ageing, and new fleet renewal programmes are expected within the near future. This paper will outline the advantages of applying the latest engine technology included in the Mark 10 engine design to the feeder segment, along with other fuel saving technologies e.g. EcoEGR. This will ensure significant SFOC savings, not only of benefit to the environment, but also to the owners.
  • MAN B&W ME-GIE installation in very large or ultra large container vessels
    pdf, 5970 KB
    As a result of MAN Energy Solutions’ innovation, more possibilities for burning greener fuels now exist. Today, customers can choose between different engine platforms that have been developed to ensure efficient and green fuel combustion by MAN B&W dual-fuel, two-stroke engines. The ME-GI dual-fuel engines described in this paper have been based on an optimized engine design platform, which has resulted in a lighter and a more powerful engine.
  • Dynamic limiter function
    pdf, 3146 KB
    The dynamic limiter function (DLF) is a new engine control system functionality that has been developed to improve engine and ship acceleration. This paper describes some principles of ship acceleration and why MAN Energy Solutions has chosen to develop DLF and how DLF works.
  • Costs and benefits
    pdf, 2730 KB
    Key results from a DNV GL and MAN Energy Solutions joint study The Sulfur Emission Control Areas (SECAs) in place in North America and Northern Europe, in combination with the upcoming global 0.5% limit on sulphur in 2020 (or 2025) and similar EU limits in 2020, call for alternative fuels as a means for compliance. Several alternative fuels are available and, at the same time, new fuel oil products with very low sulfur content have been introduced.

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