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Technical papers

This is a collection of technical papers published by MAN Energy Solutions, Copenhagen/Holeby, Denmark, covering both MAN B&W two-stroke and MAN four-stroke internal combustion engines.

Our technical papers provide information on new engine developments and trends, service experience, important aspects of engine management and maintenance, and emissions requirements compliance and development, etc. 

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  • Influence of ambient temperature conditions
    pdf, 3886 KB
    This paper provides crucial guidance for marine two-stroke engine operation in varying climates. It covers engine start-up procedures, engine room ventilation, and operation in different conditions.
  • Managing methane slip on ME-GI installations
    pdf, 1213 KB
    If no measures are taken, the expansion of LNG as an alternative marine fuel could be hindered due to the methane slip from gas engines. This paper describes how MAN Energy Solutions tackle methane slip from its dual-fuel ME-GI gas engines.
  • Decarbonziation technologies in merchant shipping
    pdf, 1365 KB
    The paper assesses the impact of energy-efficiency technologies on merchant marine ships to gauge their potential for achieving compliance with the IMO’s GHG strategy.
  • Green policies, legislation, and optimisations for the green transition of shipping
    pdf, 6178 KB
    This paper describes the implications of international legislation from IMO and regional legislation in the EU.
  • Container feeder
    pdf, 5003 KB
    This paper will focus on presenting the most modern engine technology and fuel types available for feeder vessels. Technology and engines that will make future feeder vessels highly competitive and environmentally friendly compared to the current fleet.
  • Potential for dual-fuel conversions of marine engines
    pdf, 414 KB
    Engine designer and classification society DNV argue that the main challenges of decarbonisation for the existing fleet are fuel price, availability, capacity challenges at repair yards, risk of conversion-budget overshoot, and current IMO NOX regulation.
  • Shipping en route to Paris Agreement overshoot
    pdf, 2459 KB
    This paper shows that the shipping sector will have a massive carbon overshoot where annual actual emissions and expected future emissions greatly exceed what is required to limit the global temperature increase to 1.5°C by midcentury. The accumulated carbon overshoot is estimated at 25 gigatonnes CO2 equivalents in 2050. Retrofitting single-fuel engine technology to dual-fuel may reduce the carbon overshoot by 1.6 gigatonnes CO2 equivalents (6%) until 2050. International regulation of newbuildings and the existing fleet, with a net zero CO2 target year and ambitious intermediate targets, is required to limit the carbon overshoot, set a direction for well-to-wake decarbonization behavior, and avoid stranded assets. Further, carbon pricing is required to equalize the difference between the price of fossil energy and energy with a smaller or no carbon footprint. Engine technology is no hindrance to ambitious regulation and reduction of CO2 in the shipping sector.
  • Ice classed ships
    pdf, 7215 KB
    This paper focuses on the challenges and specific aspects to consider for a propulsion plant for an ice-classed ship, especially for the new and stricter EEDI phases.
  • Improved efficiency propulsion plants
    pdf, 5749 KB
    This paper explains how improved efficiency and reduced emissions can be achieved with three-bladed propellers, so that propulsion plants may comply with upcoming EEDI phases.
  • ME-GA - The latest dual-fuel MAN B&W two-stroke engine
    pdf, 2418 KB
    This paper introduces the unique on-engine gas admission system, and discusses the new engine optimisation achieved with the proven EGR system. The first ME-GA engine available in our engine programme is a 70-bore engine aimed at the LNG carrier segment.
  • Economiser energy control for increased service steam production
    pdf, 3390 KB
    This paper provides detailed descriptions of the EEC feature available for MAN B&W low-speed two-stroke engines. In addition, an example showing how the EEC feature can reduce total fuel consumption is also provided.
  • Propulsion trends in tankers
    pdf, 4677 KB
    Not all economic regions of the globe have major sources of oil nearby. It creates a demand for transportation from major oil producing regions, for example the Middle East, Africa, and Brazil, to consumers in China, India, and Europe.
  • Filtration handbook
    pdf, 10217 KB
    It is vital that hydraulic system installations are carried out in accordance with the best practices, as described in this paper. By following the guidelines given in this paper, a quicker and more efficient flushing process is achieved.
  • Shaft generators for low speed main engines
    pdf, 3471 KB
    This paper provides detailed descriptions of the shaft generator solutions available for MAN B&W low speed two-stroke engines. PTO guidelines with examples describing how to apply the guidelines for an MR tanker and an LPG carrier are also given.
  • The Methanol-fuelled MAN B&W LGIM Engine
    pdf, 15178 KB
    This paper describes the service experience from the two generations of ME-LGIM engines, which have accumulated almost 450,000 running hours in total.
  • MAN B&W two-stroke engine operating on ammonia
    pdf, 3368 KB
    Ammonia as a marine fuel is put into perspective as this paper presents our current knowledge about ammonia as a potential long-term fuel for two-stroke marine engines.
  • Efficiency Improvements
    pdf, 4414 KB
    This technical paper describes each of the different relevant main engine auxiliary systems and the options available for efficiency improvements.
  • MAN HyProp ECO
    pdf, 3139 KB
    The paper describes the MAN HyProp ECO concept and application examples with various operating modes. For vessels with flexible operation profiles and running hours with both high and low power demands, advantages are fuel savings and emission reductions due to reduced propeller and engine speeds. With MAN HyProp ECO it is possible to reduce the fuel consumption by 10-15 %, reduce CO2, NOx and SOx emissions, operate the propeller with the highest efficiency at its best hydrodynamic point, reduce the operating hours of auxiliary gensets, and avoid electrical losses in operation modes where a bypass of the variable speed drive (VSD) can be used.
  • LNGC-optimized designs of ME-GI engines and fuel gas supply systems
    pdf, 7933 KB
    The advantages of combining the ME-GI engine with different optimized fuel gas supply configurations, as described in this paper, are highly efficient and cost-competitive propulsion solutions.
  • Batteries on board ocean-going vessels
    pdf, 7410 KB
    In the light of these needs, this paper will focus on one of the potential ways to reduce emissions, namely the application of batteries on large ocean-going vessels.
  • MAN B&W ME-LGIP dual-fuel engines
    pdf, 2012 KB
    The dual fuel capability of our two-stroke engines has been extended to include LPG as dual-fuel. The ME-LGIP engine was successfully tested on the research engine in Copenhagen in June 2018, and it has already been ordered for propulsion of LPGCs. The paper describes the technology of the engine, comprising injection, low-flashpoint fuel supply system, and gas valve train. The feasibility of the ME-LGIP engine for other ship types and as a retrofit on existing LPGCs is also touched on.
  • Basic principles of ship propulsion
    pdf, 18407 KB
    This paper provides the reader with an understanding of how the hull and propeller affect the engine running conditions and vice versa. The paper offers insight into how to design the most efficient propulsion plant.
  • 0.50% S fuel operation - 2020
    pdf, 15941 KB
    This paper provides information and guidance on 0.50% S fuel operation and how to prepare for the change from operation on high-sulphur fuel to 0.50% S fuel.
  • Adverse Weather Condition functionality and minimum propulsion power
    pdf, 4031 KB
    This paper gives a detailed description of the challenge of propulsion in harsh weather, and introduces the Adverse Weather Conditions (AWC) functionality. The AWC functionality extends the load diagram of the engine as long as required in an emergency.
  • 11,000 teu container vessel
    pdf, 944 KB
    This paper considers an ME-GI Mk. 2 gas-fuelled container vessel and the potential different fuel gas supply system arrangements available. A method to calculate the gas tank size is proposed and different fuel gas system arrangements are compared.
  • Synchrophasing
    pdf, 3935 KB
    For the increasingly popular twin propulsion design, MAN Energy Solutions has introduced synchrophasing, which is a new and highly effective tool introduced to reduce vibrations of both vessel and engine structure.
  • Service experience
    pdf, 15037 KB
    MAN Energy Solutions has introduced MAN B&W dual-fuel engines (ME-GI/E and ME-LGIM/P) for liquefied natural gas (LNG), methanol (MeOH), ethane (LEG), and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG).
  • Propulsion trends in container vessels
    pdf, 4027 KB
    Container vessels are some of the biggest contributors to the shipping market. This paper outlines the propulsion demands and possibilities regarding the future of container shipping for various sizes of container vessels.
  • Propulsion trends in bulk carriers
    pdf, 3901 KB
    Bulk carriers constitutes the single largest part of the world’s merchant fleet when counted in deadweight tonnage. The propulsion of these deserves special attention in an industry increasingly focused on reducing emissions of greenhouse gasses.
  • Propulsion of 46,000-50,000 dwt MR tankers
    pdf, 2215 KB
    This paper provides guidance and examples on how to ensure compliance with EEDI phase 2 and 3 for MR tankers through three case studies.
  • Propulsion of 14,000 teu container vessel
    pdf, 1056 KB
    This paper considers the propulsion plants available for such vessels, and shows the significant savings that can be attained through the application of the latest propulsion technology, including EcoEGR.
  • Dynamic limiter function
    pdf, 3146 KB
    This paper describes some principles of ship acceleration and why MAN Energy Solutions has chosen to develop DLF and how DLF works.
  • Costs and benefits
    pdf, 2730 KB
    Key results from a DNV GL and MAN joint study The Sulfur Emission Control Areas (SECAs) in place in North America and Northern Europe, in combination with the upcoming global 0.5% limit on sulphur, call for alternative fuels as a means for compliance.

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