Technical papers

This is a collection of technical papers published by MAN Energy Solutions, Copenhagen/Holeby, Denmark, covering both MAN B&W two-stroke and MAN four-stroke internal combustion engines.

Our technical papers provide information on new engine developments and trends, service experience, important aspects of engine management and maintenance, and emissions requirements compliance and development, etc. 

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  • 0.50% S fuel operation - 2020
    pdf, 15941 KB
    This paper provides information and guidance on 0.50% S fuel operation and how to prepare for the change from operation on high-sulphur fuel to 0.50% S fuel. Attention is drawn to specific fuel properties that should be in focus and how 0.50% S fuels affect the equipment on board. Expectations for the new types of fuels are given, and information on biofuels, fuel testing, and fuels that are not fit for purpose is also included.
  • 11,000 teu container vessel
    pdf, 944 KB
    The 11,000 teu container vessel has been a popular vessel type plying the Asia-Europe trade routes. This size of vessel has been an excellent choice that increases the flexibility in fleet deployment, with subsequent economic benefits. This paper considers an ME-GI Mk. 2 gas-fuelled container vessel and the potential different fuel gas supply system arrangements available. A method to calculate the gas tank size is proposed and different fuel gas system arrangements are compared. In conclusion, proposals are made on how to further increase the endurance and reduce the fuel consumption by applying the latest propulsion technologies, such as a combination of ME-GI and PTO, thus achieving the greatest possible energy efficiency.
  • Adverse Weather Condition functionality and minimum propulsion power
    pdf, 4031 KB
    The tightening requirements of the Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) mean that the demand for energy efficiency of merchant vessels is continuously increasing. With the EEDI leading to reductions of the power on board, concerns about a possible lack of propulsion power during encounters of adverse weather have been expressed. This paper gives a detailed description of the challenge of propulsion in harsh weather, and introduces the Adverse Weather Conditions (AWC) functionality. The AWC functionality extends the load diagram of the engine as long as required in an emergency. This increases the heavy running capability of the engine significantly and increases the minimum forward speed of the vessel in harsh weather, without requiring an increase of the engine power installed.
  • Basic principles of ship propulsion
    pdf, 6797 KB
    This paper provides the reader with an understanding of how the hull and propeller affect the engine running conditions and vice versa. The paper offers insight into how to design the most efficient propulsion plant, and explains how this task can be supported by applying the new engine selection spiral. This revised edition also includes a new section on the environmental regulations implemented over the past years. The effects of these regulations are reflected in three examples on the application of the engine selection spiral.
  • Batteries on board ocean-going vessels
    pdf, 7410 KB
    The International Maritime Organization has adopted a strategy to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases from global shipping by at least 50% by 2050 compared to 2008. Current technology must be combined in new ways; new inventions and alternative fuels must be brought to the global scene to reach this goal. In the light of these needs, this paper will focus on one of the potential ways to reduce emissions, namely the application of batteries on large ocean-going vessels. The potential for battery-electric propulsion is evaluated, along with the benefits of integrating batteries into the electric grid on board.
  • Costs and benefits
    pdf, 2730 KB
    Key results from a DNV GL and MAN Energy Solutions joint study The Sulfur Emission Control Areas (SECAs) in place in North America and Northern Europe, in combination with the upcoming global 0.5% limit on sulphur in 2020 (or 2025) and similar EU limits in 2020, call for alternative fuels as a means for compliance. Several alternative fuels are available and, at the same time, new fuel oil products with very low sulfur content have been introduced.
  • Dynamic limiter function
    pdf, 3146 KB
    The dynamic limiter function (DLF) is a new engine control system functionality that has been developed to improve engine and ship acceleration. This paper describes some principles of ship acceleration and why MAN Energy Solutions has chosen to develop DLF and how DLF works.
  • Efficiency Improvements
    pdf, 4414 KB
    In the design process of main engine auxiliary systems conducted by the shipyard, options that could improve efficiency and reduce daily fuel oil consumption and consequently CO2 emission are available. The options cover power efficiency improvements of electric auxiliary equipment, for example pumps, fans, etc., serving the main engine, but also efficiency improvements related directly to the main engine specific fuel oil consumption. This technical paper describes each of the different relevant main engine auxiliary systems and the options available for efficiency improvements. Different solutions are mentioned for each system, some of these can be combined and the savings potential added up, while others will exclude each other depending on the selected option.
  • Efficiency of MAN B&W two-stroke engines
    pdf, 1194 KB
    In the design process, typically conducted by the contractor for land-based applications or the shipyard for marine installations, it is relevant to reduce the daily fuel oil consumption and, consequently, the CO2 footprint from carbon-containing fuels. The paper covers power consumption of electric auxiliary equipment, for example pumps, fans, etc., serving the MAN B&W engines.
  • LNGC-optimized designs of ME-GI engines and fuel gas supply systems
    pdf, 7933 KB
    The new ME-GI platform sets the new industrial standard for two-stroke propulsion engines in liquefied natural gas carriers (LNGC) and other aspects of commercial shipping. The advantages of combining the ME-GI engine with different optimized fuel gas supply configurations, as described in this paper, are highly efficient and cost-competitive propulsion solutions.
  • MAN B&W ME-GIE installation in very large or ultra large container vessels
    pdf, 5970 KB
    As a result of MAN Energy Solutions’ innovation, more possibilities for burning greener fuels now exist. Today, customers can choose between different engine platforms that have been developed to ensure efficient and green fuel combustion by MAN B&W dual-fuel, two-stroke engines. The ME-GI dual-fuel engines described in this paper have been based on an optimized engine design platform, which has resulted in a lighter and a more powerful engine.
  • MAN B&W ME-LGIP dual-fuel engines
    pdf, 2012 KB
    The dual fuel capability of our two-stroke engines has been extended to include LPG as dual-fuel. The ME-LGIP engine was successfully tested on the research engine in Copenhagen in June 2018, and it has already been ordered for propulsion of LPGCs. The paper describes the technology of the engine, comprising injection, low-flashpoint fuel supply system, and gas valve train. The feasibility of the ME-LGIP engine for other ship types and as a retrofit on existing LPGCs is also touched on.
  • MAN HyProp ECO
    pdf, 3139 KB
    The paper describes the MAN HyProp ECO concept and application examples with various operating modes. For vessels with flexible operation profiles and running hours with both high and low power demands, advantages are fuel savings and emission reductions due to reduced propeller and engine speeds. With MAN HyProp ECO it is possible to reduce the fuel consumption by 10-15 %, reduce CO2, NOx and SOx emissions, operate the propeller with the highest efficiency at its best hydrodynamic point, reduce the operating hours of auxiliary gensets, and avoid electrical losses in operation modes where a bypass of the variable speed drive (VSD) can be used.
  • Propulsion of 14,000 teu container vessel
    pdf, 1056 KB
    In anticipation of the completion of the new Panama Canal, the “New Panamax” type of container vessels has been a popular category since the early 2010s. New Panamax vessels offer easy access to the large market of North America as well as good flexibility, as the vessels offer adequate economy of scale to trade on many other routes. This paper considers the propulsion plants available for such vessels, and shows the significant savings that can be attained through the application of the latest propulsion technology, including EcoEGR.
  • Propulsion of 2,200-3,000 teu container vessels
    pdf, 986 KB
    The current container feeder fleet is ageing, and new fleet renewal programmes are expected within the near future. This paper will outline the advantages of applying the latest engine technology included in the Mark 10 engine design to the feeder segment, along with other fuel saving technologies e.g. EcoEGR. This will ensure significant SFOC savings, not only of benefit to the environment, but also to the owners.
  • Propulsion of 46,000-50,000 dwt MR tankers
    pdf, 2215 KB
    This paper provides guidance and examples on how to ensure compliance with EEDI phase 2 and 3 for MR tankers through three case studies. Application of the latest engine technology, such as EcoEGR in combination with a shaft generator, will reduce the EEDI significantly. Combined with an optimized aft ship with a Kappel propeller and a rudder bulb, this will ensure EEDI compliance for traditional fuels. In addition, the paper considers alternative fuels such as LPG and LNG, as such fuels reduce the EEDI significantly and allow for a higher service speed if desired.
  • Propulsion trends in bulk carriers
    pdf, 3649 KB
    This paper focuses on bulk carrier sizes above 5,000 dwt. Based on an analysis of bulk carriers built/ordered over the last ten years, the latest vessel particulars used for modern bulk carriers are established. The propulsion power demanded is established and possible main engines listed for a range of typical sizes, using the latest MAN B&W two-stroke engine programme as the basis. Special attention is given to how to attain compliance with EEDI Phase 2 and 3, either by traditional fuels or alternative fuels.
  • Propulsion trends in container vessels
    pdf, 1268 KB
    Container vessels carry vast amounts of consumables and components around the globe in liner traffic operated by some of the most renowned ship owners. Container vessels are a well-known representative for the maritime industry, and the interest in these is as vast as the competition within the segment is fierce.
  • Service experience
    pdf, 4680 KB
    This paper describes in detail the service experience of ME-GI, ME-GIE and ME LGIM engines. Furthermore, the latest experience from our large bore engines is described. Technologies to meet Tier III requirements and our new TCEV/ FBIV designs are also touched upon.
  • Synchrophasing
    pdf, 3804 KB
    For the increasingly popular twin propulsion design, MAN Energy Solutions has introduced synchrophasing, which is a new and highly effective tool introduced to reduce vibrations of both vessel and engine structure. A comprehensive test period covering over 15 vessels shows a vibration reduction in the range of 50-70%.

Technical paper GenSets

  • MAN dual-fuel GenSets
    pdf, 2878 KB
    The MAN dual-fuel generating sets L23/30DF and L28/32DF are based on the proven classic GenSet designs L28/32H and L23/30H, recognised worldwide as ultra-reliable and robust GenSets with long TBOs. MAN dual-fuel GenSets also offer low operational and maintenance costs. It is ready for new buildings and retrofit solutions. The properties of the gas valve regulator, which is installed on the engine, allows a flexible engine room layout. The GVU can be installed at a distance of up to 100 metres from the engine. MAN Energy Solutions’ dedicated engine diagnostics system – CoCoS-EDS – offers owners and operators an integrated system for data analysis, troubleshooting, trend analysis, and online service. The online service makes the know-how of MAN experts available in real time.

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