Biofuels are produced from biomass and cover a range of fuels such as bioethanol and biodiesel. Biodiesel is used interchangeably with FAME (fatty acid methyl ester) which is the generic chemical term for a bio-based component from renewable sources like soya oil, used cooking oils and animal fats/tallow. In addition, HVO (hydrotreated vegetable oil) is referred to as a biofuel produced via hydroprocessing of oils and fats, where DME (dimethyl ether) can be synthesized from biomass feedstock through a gasification process.
First-generation biofuels are produced from food crops grown on arable soil. The sugar, starch, or oil contained is converted into biodiesel or ethanol. This is currently 99% of today’s biofuels. Second-generation biofuels are made on the basis of lignocelluloses, wood biomass, agricultural residues, waste vegetable oil, and public waste. Third-generation biofuels are derived from microalgae cultivation; however, most efforts to produce fuel from algae have been abandoned.
- Biofuels can be fully renewable and nearly 100% CO2 neutral
- Transport, storage, and handling are unusually simple – Biofuels can be used as drop-in fuels without new fuel infrastructure
- Biofuels are regarded as an attractive contribution to the ongoing energy transition
- Availability, costs, and origin of biofuels as bunker fuel
- Blending of fuels – compatibility of different biofuels
- Avoiding water mixture at handling/storage for possible bacterial growth
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